Risk of brain damage in premature infants under 34 weeks of gestational age exposed to histological chorioamnionitis, Lima, Peru
Keywords:Histological Chorioamnionitis, Preterm, Intraventricular Hemorrhage, White Matter, Periventricular Leucomalacia, Lenticulostriate Vasculopathy, Neurology, Neonatology
AbstractObjectives: To assess the risk of brain damage in premature infants under 34 weeks of gestational age exposed to histological chorioamnionitis (HCA). Materials and methods: A cohort study was conducted at the Hospital Cayetano Heredia, during 2015. Premature infants under 34 weeks of gestational age, who had histopathological examination of the placenta, were included. The types of HCA evaluated were sub-chorionitis, chorionitis, chorioamnionitis, with or without funisitis. Brain damage was evaluated in three age periods, between 0 and 7 days, between 7 and 30 days and at 40 weeks of corrected gestational age. A neurological follow-up and regular controls were performed with brain ultrasound. Results: A total of 85 premature infants were included, 47.1% were women and the mean gestational age was 30.9 weeks. From the total, 42% (36/85) were born exposed to HCA. Premature rupture of membranes was the main cause of sepsis, which was related to neurological damage. HCA was associated with intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) during the first week and with white matter lesions between 7 and 30 days of age (p = 0.035). The chorioamnionitis type of HCA was associated with neurological damage during the first week (RR = 2.11, 95% CI: 1.09-4.11) and between 7 and 30 days of age (RR = 2.72, 95% CI: 1.07-6.88). Conclusions: Chorioamnionitis was a risk factor for developing brain injuries in premature infants under 34 weeks of gestational age. It was also a risk factor for HIV during the first 7 days and for white matter injuries between 7 and 30 days of age. At 40 weeks of corrected gestational age, extreme premature infants with HCA had more extensive brain damage.
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