Inequality in Peruvian neonatal mortality generated by poverty and education, 2011-2019


  • Jeannette Giselle Ávila Vargas-Machuca Centro Nacional de Epidemiologia, Prevención y Control de Enfermedades del Ministerio de Salud.Enfermera, especialista en Epidemiología de Campo, doctora en Salud.



Health Inequities, Social Determinants of Health, Educational Status, Poverty, Peru


Objective: This study aimed to analyze inequality in the neonatal mortality rate (NMR) between departments in Peru, generated by poverty and education, in the years 2011 and 2019. Materials and methods: Ecological study based on the analysis of social inequalities in health, recommended by the World Health
Organization. The health indicator was the NMR. Poverty, measured as the existence of at least one unmet basic need per department, and education, average years of study of women of childbearing age per department, were selected to stratify equity. We calculated the absolute inequality gap (AG), the relative inequality gap (RG) and the health concentration index (HCI). Results: A higher NMR was found in departments with greater poverty and less education. In the NMR generated by poverty, the AG decreased from 8.13 to 2.24 between 2011-2019 and the RG from 2.08 to 1.31. The AG of the NMR according to education dropped from 4.50 to 2.31 and the RG from 1.62 to 1.28. The HCI registered values close to zero and with a decreasing trend; in 2019 it was 0.07 for poverty and 0.06 for education. Conclusions: There is inequality in neonatal mortality between departments in Peru according to poverty and education, which decreased between 2011 and 2019 mainly in the poor or less educated population. The Ministry of Health should continue to reduce neonatal mortality by promoting interventions with a greater population focus.


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Original Article

How to Cite

Ávila Vargas-Machuca JG. Inequality in Peruvian neonatal mortality generated by poverty and education, 2011-2019. Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica [Internet]. 2022 Jun. 30 [cited 2024 Jun. 19];39(2):178-84. Available from:

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