Development and validation of a COVID-19 risk perception scale in Peru




Coronavirus Infections, Perception, Psychometrics, Perú


Objectives. To develop and validate a risk perception scale for COVID-19 (PR-COVID-19-PE) in the Peruvian population. Materials and methods. Psychometric cross-sectional study conducted in 2022. In phase 1, in order to design the scale, we carried out a theoretical review and a documentary review of scales, we also used focus groups as well as an expert panel. Phase 2 included expert judgment and a pilot test. A virtual survey was conducted among 678 Peruvian adults during phase 3. A confirmatory factor analysis was carried out as well. We used a correlational analysis (Pearson’s r) with a valid risk perception scale and the COVID-19 fear scale to determine criterion validity. Results. The PR-COVID-19-PE has two dimensions (cognitive and emotional) and showed good fit during construct validity (x2/gl=2.34, Comparative Fit Index=0.96, Tucker-Lewis Index=0.96, Root Mean Square Error of Approximation=0.05 and Standardized Root Mean-Square=0.07) and optimal internal consistency (ώ=0.88). Likewise, the PR-COVID-19-PE showed correlation with another COVID-19 risk perception scale (r=0.70, p< 0.001) and a fear of COVID-19 scale (r=0.41, p<0.001). In addition, it presents metric and scalar invariance by both sex and educational level. Conclusions. The PR-COVID-19-PE scale showed adequate reliability and content, construct and criterion validity. It is an instrument that can measure COVID-19 risk perception in similar populations. However, further studies are required for different populations.


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How to Cite

Zeladita-Huaman JA, Franco-Chalco E, Zegarra-Chapoñan R, Iguiñiz-Romero R, Amemiya-Hoshi I. Development and validation of a COVID-19 risk perception scale in Peru. Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica [nternet]. 2023 Jun. 30 [cited 2023 Sep. 26];40(2):170-8. vailable from:



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