Comparison of violence and aggressions suffered by health personnel during the COVID-19 pandemic in Argentina and the rest of Latin America
Keywords:Violence, COVID-19, Pandemics, Aggression, Latin America, Health Personnel
Objectives. To explore the frequency and impact of violence against healthcare workers in Argentina and to compare it with the rest of their Latin American peers during the COVID-19 pandemic. Materials and methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted by applying an electronic survey on Latin American medical and non-medical personnel who carried out health care tasks since March 2020. We used Poisson regression to estimate crude (PR) and adjusted (aPR) Prevalence Ratios with their respective 95% confidence intervals. Results. A total of 3544 participants from 19 countries answered the survey; 1992 (56.0%) resided in Argentina. Of these, 62.9% experienced at least one act of violence; 97.7% reported verbal violence and 11.8% physical violence. Of those who were assaulted, 41.5% experienced violence at least once a week. Health personnel from Argentina experienced violence more frequently than those from other countries (62.9% vs. 54.6%, p<0.001), and these events were more frequent and stressful (p<0.05). In addition, Argentinean health personnel reported having considered changing their healthcare tasks and/or desired to leave their profession more frequently (p<0.001). In the Poisson regression, we found that participants from Argentina had a higher prevalence of violence than health workers from the region (14.6%; p<0.001). Conclusions. There was a high prevalence of violence against health personnel in Argentina during the COVID-19 pandemic. These events had a strong negative impact on those who suffered them. Our data suggest that violence against health personnel may have been more frequent in Argentina than in other regions of the continent.
Pulido L, Solis-Aramayo MA, Ibarrola M, Heres M, Falco J, Tomaszuk G, et al. Initial experience in the attention of patients with COVID-19 in a private third-level hospital in Buenos Aires City. Medicina (B Aires). 2020;80(5):433-8.
Garcia-Zamora S, Lee S, Haseeb S, Bazoukis G, Tse G, Alvarez-Garcia J, et al. Arrhythmias and electrocardiographic findings in Coronavirus disease 2019: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2021;44(6):1062-1074. doi: 10.1111/pace.14247.
Denning M, Goh ET, Tan B, Kanneganti A, Almonte M, Scott A, et al. Determinants of burnout and other aspects of psychological well-being in healthcare workers during the Covid-19 pandemic: A multinational cross-sectional study. PLoS One. 2021;16(4):e0238666. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0238666.
Atri D, Siddiqi HK, Lang JP, Nauffal V, Morrow DA, Bohula EA. COVID-19 for the Cardiologist: Basic Virology, Epidemiology, Cardiac
Manifestations, and Potential Therapeutic Strategies. JACC Basic Transl Sci. 2020;5(5):518-36. doi: 10.1016/j.jacbts.2020.04.002.
Dye TD, Alcantara L, Siddiqi S, Barbosu M, Sharma S, Panko T, et al. Risk of COVID-19-related bullying, harassment and stigma among
healthcare workers: an analytical cross-sectional global study. BMJ Open. 2020;10(12):e046620. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2020-046620.
McGuire SS, Gazley B, Majerus AC, Mullan AF, Clements CM. Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on workplace violence at an academic emergency department. Am J Emerg Med. 2022;53:285e-e5. doi: 10.1016/j.ajem.2021.09.045.
Qi M, Hu X, Liu J, Wen J, Hu X, Wang Z, et al. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the prevalence and risk factors of workplace violence among healthcare workers in China. Front Public Health. 2022;10:938423. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2022.938423.
Shuttleworth A. Violence to healthcare staff must be tackled nationally. Prof Nurse. 1992;7(9):560.
Serrano Vicente MI, Fernandez Rodrigo MT, Satustegui Dorda PJ, Urcola Pardo F. Agression to health care personnel in Spain: a systematic review. Rev Esp Salud Publica. 2019;93:e201910097.
Distasio CA. Violence in health care: institutional strategies to cope with the phenomenon. Health Care Superv. 1994;12(4):1-34.
Stubbs B, Winstanley S, Alderman N, Birkett-Swan L. The risk of assault to physiotherapists: beyond zero tolerance? Physiotherapy. 2009;95(2):134-9. doi: 10.1016/j.physio.2008.12.005.
International Labour Organization, International Council of Nurses, World Health Organization, Public Services. International Joint Programme on Workplace Violence in Health Sector. Framework guidelines for addressing workplace violence in health sector. Disponible en: https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/9221134466.
Garcia-Zamora S, Pulido L, Miranda-Arboleda AF, Garcia DE, Perez G, Priotti M, et al. Aggression, Micro-aggression, and Abuse Against Health Care Providers During the COVID-19 Pandemic. A Latin American Survey. Curr Probl Cardiol. 2022;47(10):101296. doi: 10.1016/j.cpcardiol.2022.101296.
Sharma A, Minh Duc NT, Luu Lam Thang T, Nam NH, Ng SJ, Abbas KS, et al. A Consensus-Based Checklist for Reporting of Survey Studies (CROSS). J Gen Intern Med. 2021;36(10):3179-87. doi: 10.1007/s11606-021-06737-1.
Kakar H, Gambhir RS, Singh S, Kaur A, Nanda T. Informed consent: corner stone in ethical medical and dental practice. J Family Med Prim Care. 2014;3(1):68-71.
Bitencourt MR, Alarcao ACJ, Silva LL, Dutra AC, Caruzzo NM, Roszkowski I, et al. Predictors of violence against health professionals during the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil: A cross-sectional study. PLoS One. 2021;16(6):e0253398. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0253398.
Munoz Del Carpio-Toia A, Begazo Munoz Del Carpio L, Mayta-Tristan P, Alarcon-Yaquetto DE, Malaga G. Workplace Violence Against Physicians Treating COVID-19 Patients in Peru: A Cross-Sectional Study. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf. 2021;47(10):637-45. doi: 10.1016/j.jcjq.2021.06.002.
Lafta R, Qusay N, Mary M, Burnham G. Violence against doctors in Iraq during the time of COVID-19. PLoS One. 2021;16(8):e0254401. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0254401.
Arafa A, Shehata A, Youssef M, Senosy S. Violence against healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic: a cross-sectional study
from Egypt. Arch Environ Occup Health. 2022;77(8):621-627. doi: 10.1080/19338244.2021.1982854.
Bhatti OA, Rauf H, Aziz N, Martins RS, Khan JA. Violence against Healthcare Workers during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Review of Incidents from a Lower-Middle-Income Country. Ann Glob Health. 2021;87(1):41. doi: 10.5334/aogh.3203.
Sakthivel P, Rajeshwari M, Malhotra N, Ish P. Violence against doctors: an emerging epidemic amidst COVID-19 pandemic in India. Postgrad Med J. 2022;98(e2):e74. doi: 10.1136/postgradmedj-2020-138925.
Liu R, Li Y, An Y, Zhang L, An FR, Luo J, et al. Workplace violence against frontline clinicians in emergency departments during the COVID-19 pandemic. PeerJ. 2021;9:e12459. doi: 10.7717/peerj.12459.
Shang Z, Kim JY, Cheng SO. Discrimination experienced by Asian Canadian and Asian American health care workers during the COVID-19 pandemic: a qualitative study. CMAJ Open. 2021;9(4):E998-E1004. doi: 10.9778/cmajo.20210090.
Somville F, Vanspringel G, De Cauwer H, Franck E, Van Bogaert P. Work stress-related problems in physicians in the time of COVID-19. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2021;34(3):373-83. doi: 10.13075/ijomeh.1896.01674.
Cai J, Qin Z, Wang H, Zhao X, Yu W, Wu S, et al. Trajectories of the current situation and characteristics of workplace violence among nurses: a nine-year follow-up study. BMC Health Serv Res. 2021;21(1):1220. doi: 10.1186/s12913-021-07245-y.
Hsu MC, Chou MH, Ouyang WC. Dilemmas and Repercussions of Workplace Violence against Emergency Nurses: A Qualitative Study. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2022;19(5):2661. doi: 10.3390/ijerph1905266.
Saragih ID, Tarihoran D, Rasool A, Saragih IS, Tzeng HM, Lin CJ. Global prevalence of stigmatization and violence against healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Nurs Scholarsh. 2022;54(6):762-771. doi: 10.1111/jnu.12794.
Ramzi ZS, Fatah PW, Dalvandi A. Prevalence of Workplace Violence Against Healthcare Workers During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Front Psychol. 2022;13:896156. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2022.896156.
Shi L, Wang L, Jia X, Li Z, Mu H, Liu X, et al. Prevalence and correlates of symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder among Chinese healthcare workers exposed to physical violence: a cross-sectional study. BMJ Open. 2017;7(7):e016810. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-016810.
Nam SH, Lee DW, Seo HY, Hong YC, Yun JY, Cho SJ, et al. Empathy With Patients and Post-Traumatic Stress Response in Verbally Abused Healthcare Workers. Psychiatry Investig. 2021;18(8):770-8. doi: 10.30773/pi.2021.0066.
Tuya-Figueroa X, Mezones-Holguin E, Monge E, Arones R, Mier M, Saravia M, et al. External workplace violence against doctors in hospital services in Lima Metropolitana, Peru 2014. Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica. 2016;33(4):670-679. doi: 10.17843/rpmesp.2016.334.2550.
Ancalli-Calizaya F, Cohaila G, Maquera-Afaray J. Assaults against health workers in Tacna, Peru. Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica. 2012;29(3):415-6. doi: 10.1590/s1726-46342012000300022.
Taype-Rondán Á, Lizarraga-Castañeda Z, Mayor-Vega A, Mariños-Claudet A. Perception of violence during medical internship in a peruvian university. Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica. 2016;33(2):382-4.
Nieto-Gutierrez W, Toro-Huamanchumo CJ, Taype-Rondan A, Timaná-Ruiz R, Alva Diaz C, Jumpa-Armas D, et al. Workplace
violence by specialty among Peruvian medical residents. PLoS One. 2018;13(11):e0207769. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0207769.
Jiménez RE, Bachelet VC, Gomolán P, Lefio LÁ, Goyenechea M. Violence and burnout in health care emergency workers in Santiago, Chile: A survey-based cross-sectional study. Int Emerg Nurs. 2019;47:100792. doi: 10.1016/j.ienj.2019.100792.
Travetto C, Daciuk N, Fernandez S, Ortiz P, Mastandueno R, Prats M, et al. Assaults on professionals in healthcare settings. Rev Panam Salud Publica. 2015;38(4):307-15.
M de-San-Segundo, J J Granizo, I Camacho, M J Martínez-de-Aramayona, M Fernández, M Á Sánchez-Úriz. A comparative study of aggression towards Primary Care and Hospital Health professionals in a Madrid health area (2009-2014). Semergen. 2017;43(2):85-90. doi: 10.1016/j.semerg.2016.03.017.
Climent-Rodríguez JA, Navarro-Abal Y, García-Iglesias JJ, Vaca-Acosta RM, Ortega-Moreno M, Gómez-Salgado J. Violence at work and work engagement against nursing professionals in Spain: a cross-sectional study. Rev Esp Salud Publica. 2023;97:e202301003.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2023 Sebastián Garcia-Zamora, Pablo A. Iomini, Laura Pulido, Andrés F. Miranda-Arboleda, Pilar Lopez-Santi, Lucrecia M. Burgos, Gonzalo E. Perez, Mauricio Priotti, Darío E. García, Melisa Antoniolli, Gabriel Musso, Ezequiel J. Zaidel, Álvaro Sosa-Liprandi, Mildren A. Del-Sueldo, Ricardo Lopez-Santi, Gustavo Vazquez, Adrián Baranchuk
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.