COVID-19: immune response and therapeutic perspective

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.17843/rpmesp.2020.372.5490

Keywords:

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, Viral Pneumonia, Virosis, Coronavirus infections, Pandemics, Antibodies, Cytokines, Lymphocytes, Vaccines, COVID-19

Abstract

Disease caused by the new coronavirus (COVID-19) is characterized by fever, cough, and affection of the lower respiratory tract. It is associated with age, comorbidities and a weakened immune system. Typically, lymphopenias have been evidenced in severe cases and an excessive production of inflammatory cytokines (cytokine storm), which would explain the role of the hyperinflammatory response in the pathogenesis of COVID-19. Secondary inflammatory responses from virus reinfections may induce antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE), a viremic phenomenon that may be an alternative mechanism of cellular infection and should be considered when designing vaccines or immunotherapies involving the stimulation of neutralizing antibodies or the use of monoclonal antibodies. Currently, no vaccines or treatments demonstrate safety and efficacy in patients with COVID-19. However, the results from phase III clinical trials which involve the application of an mRNA (messenger ribonucleic acid) nucleic acid vaccine and an antiviral drug (remdisivir), are yet to be concluded. For the time being, the best measure to prevent the spread of COVID-19 is by implementing social isolation, this measure has been adopted by several countries as recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO).

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Author Biographies

  • Iván Lozada-Requena, Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Perú. Doctor en Ciencias de la Vida

    PhD en Ciencias de la Vida, MSc Microbiología                          Laboratorio de Inmunología, Departamento de Ciencias Celulares y Moleculares, Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Perú

  • César Núñez Ponce, Empresa de Investigación y Desarrollo (EMINDES) SAC, Lima, Perú. Médico Cirujano

    Medico Cirujano.

    Empresa de Investigación y Desarrollo (EMINDES) SAC, Lima, Perú

Published

2020-05-01

Issue

Section

Review

How to Cite

1.
Lozada-Requena I, Núñez Ponce C. COVID-19: immune response and therapeutic perspective. Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica [Internet]. 2020 May 1 [cited 2024 May 23];37(2):312-9. Available from: https://rpmesp.ins.gob.pe/index.php/rpmesp/article/view/5490